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American physician and educator William Pepper Jr.

In 1875, American physician and educator William Pepper Jr. (1843-1898) noted the extreme hyperplasia of the bone marrow in patients with pernicious anemia. (Courtesy of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Photograph restored by Dr. Douglas Lanska.)

Associated Disorders

  • Alcohol-tobacco amblyopia
  • Cerebral vascular disease
  • Dementia
  • Depression
  • Developmental delay
  • Folate deficiency
  • Gastric resection
  • Glossitis
  • Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome
  • Malabsorption
  • Megaloblastic anemia
  • Myelopathy
  • Optic neuropathy
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Polyneuropathy
  • Regional enteritis
  • Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord