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German physician Ludwig Lichtheim

German physician Ludwig Lichtheim (1845-1926) provided the first accurate description of spinal cord pathology associated with certain types of anemia. (Photograph c1890. Courtesy of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Public domain.)

Associated Disorders

  • Alcohol-tobacco amblyopia
  • Cerebral vascular disease
  • Dementia
  • Depression
  • Developmental delay
  • Folate deficiency
  • Gastric resection
  • Glossitis
  • Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome
  • Malabsorption
  • Megaloblastic anemia
  • Myelopathy
  • Optic neuropathy
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Polyneuropathy
  • Regional enteritis
  • Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord