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Eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels and the outer pore blockers: alpha-subunit transmembrane topology

Positions of the selectivity filter "DEKA residues" and the outer carboxylates, which interact with TTX (tetrodotoxin), STX (saxitoxin), and μ-CTX (μ-conotoxin), are marked by red dots. (Source: Tikhonov DB, Zhorov BS. Predicting structural details of the sodium channel pore basing on animal toxin studies. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:880. Creative Commons Attribution [CC BY] license.)