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Eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels and the outer pore blockers: 3D structures of the outer pore-blocking toxins

Shown is Arg13 in μ-conotoxin GIIIA, which is critical for the channel block. (Source: Tikhonov DB, Zhorov BS. Predicting structural details of the sodium channel pore basing on animal toxin studies. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:880. Creative Commons Attribution [CC BY] license.)