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Model of voltage-gated sodium channels: extracellular view of the tetrodotoxin-bound model

Repeats I, II, III, and IV are green, yellow, cyan, and magenta, respectively. The outer carboxylates are shown as sticks. (Source: Tikhonov DB, Zhorov BS. Predicting structural details of the sodium channel pore basing on animal toxin studies. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:880. See also: Tikhonov DB, Zhorov BS. Architecture and pore block of eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels in view of NavAb bacterial sodium channel structure. Mol Pharmacol 2012;82[1]:97-104. Creative Commons Attribution [CC BY] license.)