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Blockade of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels

The normal condition is depicted in the top image, and the tetrodotoxin blockade (black blobs on the outer surface of the voltage-gated sodium channels) is depicted in the lower image. TTX=tetrodotoxin. (Source: Campos-Ríos A, Rueda-Ruzafa L, Herrera-Pérez S, Rivas-Ramírez P, Lamas JA. Tetrodotoxin: a new strategy to treat visceral pain? Toxins (Basel) 2021;13[7]:496. Creative Commons Attribution [CC BY] License, http://crea- This figure was modified and edited by Dr. Douglas J Lanska; the original emphasis on pain transmission in bipolar sensory neurons was changed to schematically depict a generic neuron.)