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American surgeon William Stewart Halsted (1852-1922)

In 1909, Halstead, working at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, attempted both iso- and auto-transplantation of parathyroid tissue, by transplanting canine parathyroid glands into thyroid tissue and under the skin. (Courtesy of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Public domain.)

Associated Disorders

  • Acute and chronic renal failure
  • Endocrine disorders
  • Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
  • Granulomatous disorders
  • Infantile hypercalcemia (Williams syndrome)
  • Malignancy
  • Milk-alkali syndrome
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism