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Posterior pole anatomy

The portion of the ocular fundus that includes the optic nerve and the macula is the area between the temporal arcades and is called the posterior pole. The center part of the posterior pole is the macula, and the most central part of the macula is the fovea. A capillary-free zone in the fovea is known as the foveal avascular zone (measures 400 microns or 0.61 mm in normals). The center of the universe of the retina/choroid is the macula (and the fovea contained within). (Contributed by Dr. James Walters.)

Associated Disorders

  • Bassen-Kornzweig disease
  • Cushing syndrome
  • Kearns-Sayre syndrome
  • Lawrence-Moon-Biedl syndrome
  • Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
  • Ocular paraneoplastic syndromes
  • Refsum disease
  • Usher syndrome
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • posterior vitreous detachment
  • retinal detachment
  • systemic arterial hypertension
  • systemic lupus erythematosus